The DataBench Framework and the BDV Reference Model

The DataBench Framework is following three main dimensions: Pipeline steps, Processing types and Data types. There are also other dimensions like computing continuum – edge, premise, fog, cloud, HPC etc – and others. In addition, we have the Business dimensions: Application domains etc.

The DataBench Framework is based on the structure of the BDVA Reference Model – and is focusing on both vertical and horizontal benchmarks according to this model – further related to business-oriented benchmarks.

The industry-based use cases are analysed in order to derive examples and metrics that can be related to each of the Big Data types. The focus is on reusing and adapting the established benchmarks for structural data (BigBench, BigDataBench, TPC and others) and graph data/linked data (Hobbit I-IV and LDBC 1-3) and in particular on incorporating benchmark proposals related to Time series/IoT (Yahoo Stream Benchmark, RIoTBench, StreamBench and others) and also input from DataBench partners research benchmarks on streaming sensor data, ABench and SenseMark.

Similarly, there will be a focus on the data types of Image/Audio/Media and Text/NLP where also analytic and processing benchmarks for machine learning (DeepBench, DeepMark and others) are relevant. A final relevant area for vertical benchmarks is on the effect of technology support for data privacy and security. A set of projects related to how to support data privacy has been started under the Big Data PPP ICT18 and a benchmark approach for analysing and understanding the use of these techniques has been requested from the user community.

The vertical dimension is based on benchmarks according to the following Big Data types:

  • Structured Data Benchmarks
  • IoT/Time Series Benchmarks
  • SpatioTemporal Benchmarks
  • Media/Image Benchmarks
  • Text/NLP Benchmarks
  • Graph/Metadata Benchmarks

The BDV Reference Model

The BDV Reference Model has been developed by the BDVA, taking into account input from technical experts and stakeholders along the whole Big Data Value chain as well as interactions with other related PPPs. An explicit aim of the BDV Reference Model in the SRIA 4.0 document is to also include logical relationships to other areas of a digital platform such as Cloud, High Performance Computing (HPC), IoT, Networks/5G, CyberSecurity etc.

The BDV Reference Model may serve as common reference framework to locate Big Data technologies on the overall IT stack. It addresses the main concerns and aspects to be considered for Big Data Value systems.

The BDV Reference Model is structured into horizontal and vertical concerns.

  • Horizontal concerns cover specific aspects along the data processing chain, starting with data collection and ingestion, reaching up to data visualization. It should be noted, that the horizontal concerns do not imply a layered architecture. As an example, data visualization may be applied directly to collected data (data management aspect) without the need for data processing and analytics. Further data analytics might take place in the IoT area – i.e. Edge Analytics. This shows logical areas – but they might execute in different physical layers.
  • Vertical concerns address cross-cutting issues, which may affect all the horizontal concerns. In addition, verticals may also involve non-technical aspects (e.g., standardization as technical concerns, but also non-technical ones).

Given the purpose of the BDV Reference Model to act as a reference framework to locate Big Data technologies, it is purposefully chosen to be as simple and easy to understand as possible. It thus does not have the ambition to serve as a full technical reference architecture. However, the BDV Reference Model is compatible with such reference architectures, most notably the emerging ISO JTC1 WG9 Big Data Reference Architecture – now being further developed in ISO JTC1 SC42 Artificial Intelligence.

The BDV Reference Model may serve as common reference framework to locate Big Data technologies on the overall IT stack. BDV Reference Model is compatible with such reference architectures, most notably the ISO JTC1 WG9 Big Data Reference Architecture which now has become part of the ISO SC42 AI (and Big Data) standard ISO 12345 XX.

The refinement of the BDVA Reference Model has been based on defining sub-categories within each of the reference model areas based on the refinement of the respective areas in the ISO SC42 suite of standards and technical reports currently in progress. The sub-categories describe typical technology types within each of the areas, relevant in benchmarking context.

The mapping from the Generic Data Pipeline devised in DataBench, the data types and horizontal areas of the BDV Reference Model and the classification of benchmarking tools done in DataBench Matrix of benchmarks can be seen in this figure .

The modeling approach in the BDV Reference Model is on the top level to describe logical technical areas within a wider Big Data and AI platform, and within each of the areas, relevant subcategories within this area. In addition to technical subcategories it has also been identified typical process steps in a Big Data pipeline relevant for the various areas. Work has started to consolidate and unify the models, metamodels and ontologies from D1.1, D3.1, D5.1 and D1.2 and the companion D1.3 and D1.4 public deliverables.

The following technical priorities as expressed in the BDV Reference Model are elaborated in the remainder of this nugget:

Horizontal concerns

  • Big Data Applications: Solutions supporting Big Data within various domains will often consider the creation of domain specific usages and possible extensions to the various horizontal and vertical areas. This is often related to the usage of various combinations of the identified Big Data types described in the vertical concerns.
  • Data Visualisation and User Interaction: Advanced visualization approaches for improved user experience.
  • Data Analytics: Data analytics to improve data understanding, deep learning, and meaningfulness of data.
  • Data Processing Architectures: Optimized and scalable architectures for analytics of both data-at-rest and data-in- motion with low latency delivering real-time analytics.
  • Data Protection: Privacy and anonymisation mechanisms to facilitate data protection. It also has links to trust mechanisms like Blockchain technologies, smart contracts and various forms for encryption. This area is also associated with the area of CyberSecurity, Risk and Trust.
  • Data Management: Principles and techniques for data management including both data life cycle management and usage of data lakes and data spaces, as well as underlying data storage services.
  • Cloud and High Performance Computing (HPC): Effective Big Data processing and data management might imply effective usage of Cloud and High Performance Computing infrastructures. This area is separately elaborated further in collaboration with the Cloud and High Performance Computing (ETP4HPC) communities.
  • IoT, CPS, Edge and Fog Computing: A main source of Big Data is sensor data from an IoT context and actuator interaction in Cyber Physical Systems. In order to meet real-time needs it will often be necessary to handle Big Data aspects at the edge of the system.

Vertical concerns

  • Big Data Types and semantics: The following six Big Data types have been identified – based on the fact that they often lead to the use different techniques and mechanisms in the horizontal concerns, which should be considered, for instance for data analytics and data storage: 1) Structured data; 2) Times series data; 3) GeoSpatial data, 4) Media, Image, Video and Audio data; 5) Text data, including Natural Language Processing data and Genomics representations; 6) Graph data, Network/Web data and Meta data. In addition, it is important to support both the syntactical and semantic aspects of data for all Big Data types.
  • Standards: Standardisation of Big Data technology areas to facilitate data integration, sharing and interoperability.
  • Communication and Connectivity: Effective communication and connectivity mechanisms are necessary for providing support for Big Data. This area is separately elaborated further with various communication communities, such as the 5G community.
  • Cybersecurity: Big Data often need support to maintain security and trust beyond privacy and anonymisation. The aspect of trust frequently has links to trust mechanisms such as blockchain technologies, smart contracts and various forms of encryption. The CyberSecurity area is separately elaborated further with the CyberSecurity PPP community.
  • Engineering and DevOps: for building Big Data Value systems. This area is also elaborated further with the NESSI (Networked European Software and Service Initiative) Software and Service community.
  • Data Platforms: Marketplaces, IDP/PDP, Ecosystems for Data Sharing and Innovation support. Data Platforms for Data Sharing include in particular Industrial Data Platforms (IDPs) and Personal Data Platforms (PDPs), but also include other data sharing platforms like Research Data Platforms (RDPs) and Urban/City Data Platforms (UDPs). These platforms include efficient usage of a number of the horizontal and vertical Big Data areas, most notably the areas for data management, data processing, data protection and CyberSecurity.
  • AI platforms: In the context of the relationship between AI and Big Data there is an evolving refinement of the BDV Reference Model – showing how AI platforms typically include support for Machine Learning, Analytics, visualization, processing etc. in the upper technology areas supported by data platforms – for all of the various Big Data types.


If you would like to search for these elements (pipelines and BDV Reference Model), please use the Search by Pipeline/Blueprint or Search by BDV Reference Model options available under the search menu of the DataBench Toolbox.

You may also check the 4 main elements of the data pipeline used in DataBench for classification purposes can be mapped to the different elements of the generic data blueprint as shown in this figure or to the BDV Reference Model.

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